in present science has prepared us for this ANSWER!
ANSWER in htm: -
ANSWER in htm: -http://rbduncan.com/answer.htm
Also ANSWER in Word:- http://rbduncan.com/answer.doc
And ANSWER in Adobe pdf:- http://rbduncan.com/answer.pdf
Shedding a little known light
on a well known battle
in an e-mail to my son Richard
Shilo was the most intense battle of the Civil War.
It taught both sides that entrenchments were necessary, to protect themselves from the new Minié bullets.
Neither side dug entrenchments -- or even thought they were necessary -- at Shilo.
Remember, in the Crimean War, "The Charge of the Light Brigade"?
But it wasn't cannon that brought them down because cannister balls shot from cannon are only effective up to 200 yards; it was the new Minié bullet (Minié ball) lethal at 600 yards that downed most of them that day in 1854. The lethal effectiveness of this new Minié bullet was something even poet Alfred Tennyson failed to comprehend.
By 1853, as the Crimean war began, the old patch and ball was no longer used in warfare because it was only good up to about 60 yards.
So earlier troops had to get close before they shot-- the order, "Don't fire 'till you see the whites of their eyes" -- was given because even the best linen patch could not effectively seal and contain the full blast of powder. Thus most of the explosive energy in the old patch and ball was entirely lost.
Copied from the 2013 Encyclopaedia Britannica DVD.
"The Minié ball produced lethally accurate fire at long ranges. It was almost universally adopted by the armies of Europe and the United States and was used throughout the American Civil War (1861–65). Minié was rewarded by the French government with 20,000 francs and an appointment to the staff of the military school at Vincennes. After retiring in 1858 with the rank of colonel, he served as a military instructor for the khedive of Egypt and as a manager at the Remington Arms Company in the United States."
The new Minié bullet-- invented in 1849 -- had a hollow base fitted with an iron cone shaped wedge that, after being fired, pushed into and expanded the lead bullet to effectively seal the explosive charge so that none of the energy was bypassed and lost.
This INCREASED THE LETHAL RANGETEN TIMES.
A 58 caliber Minié bullet could penetrate an inch of pine at 600 yards.
Not only that but the Minié bullet had grease in grooves that helped remove previous residue and allowed the Minié bullets to be shot at the rate of three every minute which was considerably faster than anyone could shoot the old style patch and ball out of the same gun.
So even though the guns didn't change, it was the change to the Minié bullet that made the same guns extremely lethal compared to using the old patch and ball.
The Minié ball was popularly called a ball but it wasn't; it was the very first bullet and not ball shaped at all.
Both the North and South were casting and shooting these new Minié bullets well before 1860.
However, people here in the U.S. didn't pay enough attention to all the distant Crimean war reports, 7 years earlier, as to the effectiveness of these new Minié bullets:
Hence the terrible carnage at Shilo.
About 150 steam boats brought 40,000 of Grant's troops to Shilo (Pittsburgh Landing).
Grant was ordered not to attack until 25,000 more of General Buell's men arrived.
Buell's men were marching for 25 days and had just turned south to march down the Tennessee river to Grant.
But Confederate General Johnston knew the supreme rule of 'divide and conquer' he had to hit Grant BEFORE Grant had half of his forces landed. Bad weather held Johnston back several days and these lost days may well have been critical in not getting to Grant fast enough.
BUT he did hit Grant on April 6, 1861 BEFORE Buell's men got there.
Johnston threw Grant's men back but then General Johnston was killed as he and his Confederates overran the Union positions but Grant was able to get an orderly retreat and form a new line, further back, at dusk.
General Beauregard took over the Confederates after Johnston died and telegraphed to Jefferson Davis, the south's president, that they had a splendid victory.
That evening and all throughout the night, Grant used his remaining steam boats to run up the Tennessee river and bring in about 16,000 of General Buell's men, along with 6,000 of another General's men, that were brought in by his steam boats as well, just before the morning of April 7, 1861.
These 22,000 additional men enabled Grant and Sherman to turn back the Confederates in the early afternoon of that next day.
The carnage of those TWO DAYS of BATTLE taught both sides that these new Minié bullets required the digging of entrenchments to keep the troops safe. The South dug theirs mostly with slave labor.
Almost ALL the battles after Shilo were fought using entrenchments EXACTLY as they were used later in the First World War.
So began the prelude to the manner in which the First World War would be fought.
Lynn & I spent some of your money this weekend, at the Shilo Civil War battleground memorial park, and at The Corinth Civil War memorial; thanks.
Over 4 Decades of Fitzpatrick's Books, Papers & Thoughtshttp://www.amperefitz.com/4.decades.htm and here's this page duplicated in Adobe.pdf:
Fitzpatrick's First Book
If you copy this page with itslinks to your computer then you will have some other pages (links -- both htm and Adobe pdf) to read because I've only barely scratched the surface of things in this short paper.
Fitzpatrick's website is athttp://www.amperefitz.com
Another older website carrying Fitzpatrick's works FREE is:http://www.rbduncan.com
Thank you,World Scientist Database - - Daniel P. Fitzpatrick Jr.
Have a good day & visit my site at goodreads:
Click ANY of theselinks to get what you want
Read my latest book FREE:(these two links below)
http://www.amperefitz.com/ua_20071020_ck_ds_jm_ds.pdf (This is the book in Adobe)
http://www.amperefitz.com/unvasleep.htm (This book link opens faster if you have dial up.)
While all the links on this page are OK and presently working, unfortunately only about two thirds (2/3) of the links I gave, years ago, as proof (click & see: http://www.amperefitz.com/presskit.html) for statements in this latest book, published in the year MMVl, are now still working BUT your search engine will probably take you to a similar area where you should be able to read similar proof material.
& super popular now:
QED - Feynman's Strange Theory of Light and Matter "Feynman's Strange Theory of Light and Matter"
http://amperefitz.com/einsteins.cos.c.htm Einstein's Cosmological Constant.
http://www.amperefitz.com/two.magnets.htm Two magnets will show you more than thousands of books.
http://amperefitz.com/exexshorttoe.html Extra short Theory of Everything.
http://www.amperefitz.com/45years.htm 45 Years of Putting this Jigsaw Puzzle together - of unifying Gravity with all the other forces.
http://www.amperefitz.com/question.htm "Ampere's Long Wire Law is a fact!"
http://www.amperefitz.com/why.general.relativity.htm Why we have General Relativity or why mass increases with speed."
http://amperefitz.com/answers.to.mendel.htm "Dan Fitzpatrick comments on Theoretical Physicist Mendel Sachs' Beliefs."
http://amperefitz.com/quarkmspin.htm "While the electron spin causes magnetism, GRAVITY & INERTIA are caused by the QUARK SPIN."
http://amperefitz.com/abstract.htm "ABSTRACT of scalar, standing wave concept."
http://amperefitz.com/lawrm.htm "It all begins with this all important science law."
http://amperefitz.com/energy.htm "All energy is a form of binding energy." (science) e-letter by Fitzpatrick.
http://amperefitz.com/dark.m.e Why NASA tells us we have 72% Dark Energy, 23% Dark Matter and 4.6% Atoms.
http://amperefitz.com/gold1.html More wave and scalar wave questions answered by Fitzpatrick.
http://amperefitz.com/fermbos.htm ELECTRONS are fermions but not when paired spin up - spin down."
http://amperefitz.com/bond.strengths.htm "Sigma Bond strengths in the microcosm."
http://www.amperefitz.com/acceleratingexpandinguniverse.htm "Accelerating, expanding universe."
http://amperefitz.com/not.quite.everything.for.a.theory.of.everything.htm "Not Quite Everything for a Theory of Everything."
Schrödinger's Universe Schrodinger's Universe
http://rbduncan.com/why.we.have.gravity.htm "Why we have GRAVITY and why we have Centrifugal Force.
http://amperefitz.com/einsteins.blunder.htm "Einstein's Biggest Blunder -- Wasn't?"
http://amperefitz.com/plawrm.htm "Electrons normally repel BUT . . . " says Dan Fitzpatrick Jr.
http://www.rbduncan.com/letter_june2004.htm "And Hubble warned us this was NOT an expanding universe."
http://www.rbduncan.com/binary.htm Binary Stars act exactly like Electrons.
http://rbduncan.com/TOEbyFitzpatrick.htm A "Theory of Everything" by Daniel P. Fitzpatrick Jr.
http://www.rbduncan.com/letter_june2004.htm Newton and Einstein only gave us HALF the story.
http://www.rbduncan.com/mybook.htm "A New Science Tool" (science) e-book by Fitzpatrick
http://rbduncan.com/Gspeed.htm "Speed of Gravity is 9x1016 meters per second."
http://rbduncan.com/phase.coherence.htm Phase Coherence and the Inverse Square law.
http://amperefitz.com/lisiimp.htm "Why Garrett Lisi's Model is so important."
http://amperefitz.com/ffacts.htm "Little Known Facts about Well known science Terms" (science) e-book by Fitzpatrick.
Adobepdf links below give you more important actual science about what is really going on in our universe.
QUICK version of Ampere's Laws.
Two magnets will show you more than thousands of books.
Sigma bond strengths in the microcosm
"An important Quark message no one is heeding!"
45 Years of Putting this Jigsaw Puzzle together - of unifying Gravity with all the other forces."
"Ampere's Long Wire Law is a fact!"
"Affenstall Science Christmas Message"
"Dan Fitzpatrick comments on Theoretical Physicist Mendel Sachs' Beliefs."
"Why we have general relativity or why mass increases with speed."
"Fitz answers some Scalar Wave questions."
"And Hubble warned us this was NOT an expanding universe."
"Ampere really gave us this Relative Motion Law in 1825 for things he knew were moving in the wire (electrons)."
"Fitz talks about some basic problems in physics." - by Fitzpatrick.
"Little Known Facts about Well known science Terms" (science) e-book by Fitzpatrick:
"Lisi's E8 model seems to show us why we get space & time!"
"Why Garrett Lisi's Model is so important."
"What Dr. Milo Wolff says connects with what A. G. Lisi is showing."
A radioman sees us all as radios tuned in to this universe.
WHEN DID YOU PUBLISH "Out-of-phase waves give us space and repulsive force."
But then Caroline - from Cambridge - repudiated what she had discovered: one of the most important scientific discoveries EVER MADE! Incredible! Simply Incredible!
"Why we have GRAVITY."
"Speed of Gravity is 9x1016 meters per second."
"Einstein's Principle of Equivalence or why gravity acts like acceleration."
Is Saul Perlmutter explaining the reason for us having the principle of equivalence?
"It's understanding the Binding Energy Curve" says Dan Fitzpatrick Jr.
"All energy is a form of binding energy." (science) e-letter by Fitzpatrick.
"Shedding light on Energy Quanta."
May, 27, 2013 - This can be copied and distributed by anyone as long as it is copied and distributed in its entirety.
Daniel P.Fitzpatrick Jr.